Keratinocytes play an important role in the immune response of the skin. In response to irritating chemicals or UV radiation (pro-inflammatory stimuli), keratinocytes can release a vast array of cytokines. These cytokines are thought to help engage immune cells to the site of irritation. Cytokines released by the keratinocytes include PGE2, TNFa, IL-1a, IL-1b, IL-3, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, IL-18, and IL-1RA. While the immune response is a natural response of the body to an irritating stimuli, sometimes it is desirable to stop the inflammatory response or at least reduce it. Our testing facility offers several options for screening materials for anti-inflammation activity.
- MatTek EpiDerm (UVB used to initiate the inflammation response)
- Cultured epidermal keratinocytes (UVB used to initiate the inflammation response)
- IL-1a and PGE2 are the standard cytokines measured. Additional cytokines can be included in the assay.
- NF-KB activation
While some inflammatory cytokines are small peptides and are directly synthesized via DNA transcription/RNA translation pathways (such as the interleukins), others inflammatory cytokines are manufactured from precursors via an enzymatic pathways (such as prostaglandins and eicosanoids). Inhibition of key enzymes in these pathways have been shown to have beneficial anti-inflammatory effects.
Anti-Inflammation Enzyme Inhibition Assays
Other Immune Based Assay
The human immune system is comprised of a broad range of cell types. In addition to keratinocytes, our lab also offers studies using other immune cells, and other immune system endpoints.
- Histamine release
- PMN migration
- PBMC proliferation
- NK cell activity
- Dendritic cell activation
- Langerhans cell activation via the nicotinic acid receptor (skin flushing response)
- Nitric oxide production
- Cytokine release in response to LPS stimulation
- IL-17 induced release of IL-8/TNFa (keratinocytes)
Please note that only the typical targets and assays are listed. If there are other types of immune studies that your company has an interest in please let us know and we can accommodate you. Please contact us for specific pricing and study timing.